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The New York Times September 1, 1951
Italy Called Heroin Center,
Luciano, Mafia Shippers
By The United Prees.
WASHINGTON, Aug. 31 The Senate Crime Investigating Committee reported today that Italy apparently was the center of the world's illicit heroin trade, with Charles Luciano acting as the operating head of the distributing rings.
In a formal report on its findings made public today, the Committee said the evidence indicated that the world-wide Mafia organization was responsible for the "present influx of heroin, from abroad." It said that Luciano and his "chief lieutenant," an Italian named Joseph Pici, were the "kingpins" of the illegal narcotics operations conducted by the Mafia.
"The committee was impressed," the report said, "with the futility of attempting to stop the flow of heroin through customs search at the borders."
It recommended that customs inspection should be directed particularly at ships of foreign registry, since "it appears that one of the principal methods of smuggling heroin into the country is on the persons of sailors on ships of foreign registry."